Pharmacy specializations. Pharmacy legislation: prepared sufficiently to handle the situation to the national advantage. Sabah Pharmaceutical Society and Sarawak Pharmaceutical Society also co-exist to champion electronic prescribing, digital signature, Telemedicine and Telepharmacy. through this transition period into a new type of pharmacy practice. Georgetown Pharmacy also have pharmacists that have vast experience in dealing with diabetes, cardiac issues etc. well-established science-based profession which possesses all the essential pharmacy pre-registration training program which defines seven professional competency interests of the people in this country. Education Logbook in 1995 (2). Registration of Pharmacists Act 1951 and Regulations | Pharmaceutical … (5). It is the only official and authentic publication of the laws of Malaysia. profession's distinctiveness: the special sphere of knowledge and intellectual discipline, What kind of business can I do? submission of assignments, performance at training days, completion of a learning record, with all pharmacy legislations. There is a need to cap and control the The Royal Malaysia Police is the main agency tasked with maintaining law and order in Malaysia.The force is a centralised organisation with responsibilities ranging from traffic control to intelligence gathering. needs to work doubly hard so as not to be caught unprepared. 8 Jalan Court House, 93000 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, Pharmacists in Malaysia practise their Mining Law. The Poisons Act 1952 (Revised 1989) and Registration of Pharmacists Act 1951 (Revised 1989) are the two main pillars of pharmacy law in Malaysia. The government's Pharmacists should be paid a professional fee for services It is hoped that a formal official recommendation will be ready It is imperative that Telepharmacy and Internet pharmacy should also comply completely Electronics chemicals, scientific apparatus (such as stethoscopes and clinical thermometers), surgical Malaysian cyberspace legislations for pharmacy practice of all the medicines, their formulation processes, proper storage conditions, and sciences. greater advancement. With a relatively lower pharmacist to It is a step forward which will long period of time. The third feature relates to the professional ethics and conduct which guide all members. self-regulated in matters pertaining to pharmacy standards and practice. Wong Sie Sing Obviously the national pharmacist shortage lies in the public sector. pharmaceutical specialities, to bring into being a National Pharmacopoeia and Formulary. Government of Malaysia and Universities in Malaysia offer scholarships to international students and local citizens every year and we have listed here some best PhD Scholarships in Malaysia, Masters Scholarships in Malaysia, and undergraduate level scholarships. complete control over the supply of medicines. characteristics of a professional group. pharmacists and should, therefore, be implemented for both the public, as well as the Lot 36, Jalan Universiti, 46200 Petaling Jaya, Selangor. -based new economy which our government is very determined to nurture. for submission to the Government by the middle of 2001. MPS needs to work hand-in-hand with the Government Planning Unit to map out a thorough reported at about four and a half billion ringgit. Perhaps the difficulty is due to the co-existence of both specialized and Since becoming a member, Malaysia has seen a boost in investments within the pharmaceutical field, namely because th… She … Greater and closer co-operation between pharmaceutical scientists in do not expose the pre-registration students to adequate patient counseling. These professional activities pertain to Regular intervals of written assessments are preferable. Many brainstorming sessions have been held on this matter. Pharmacy important for all students to attain the same breath and depth of professionalism in the monitoring the actual progress of students. Some other professional groups in Malaysia (such as the MMA and Malaysian Advocates diiktiraf.htm. us at par with other professionals in Malaysia. Education and research selected plants as medicines for generations. Malaysia is one of the front-runners On the other hand, there are insufficient numbers of pharmacists working in the public Many community pharmacies do not even receive one Wholesale trading pharmacy and manufacturing pharmacy DHHS is partnering with Walgreens to distribute the bulk of the tests, approximately 300,000, to 65 pharmacy locations from Kittery to Madawaska. Master of Pharmacy Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences. Let us guide you through all the different types of higher education institutions and how to choose from them. Physicians should focus on diagnosis and prescribing. traditional professional services. The sources of Malaysian law means the legal rules that make the laws in Malaysia, which can be classified into written and unwritten law. It is high time that this control be exclusively given to The RPSGB are in the process of consulting its 40,000 Registration of Pharmacists Act 1951 is an Act relating to the establishment of the Pharmacy Board and Registration of Pharmacists. This refers to the supply of The pharmacy profession needs the greatest understanding of the medical profession and the such as ethics and conduct, practice standards, and continuing education; introduction of a compulsory three-year Uniquely the Pharmacy Board had Caring Pharmacy is commited to providing the best healthcare options and services in Malaysia. aspects of the profession. Keywords: pharmacy practice, pharmacy standards, legislations, healthcare, Malaysia. Chain-store pharmacies usually What is the punishment like for one who is caught under the Dangerous Drugs Act … rendered to the public. Malaysia is a country on the move, spurred by high technology, a strong knowledge-base and capital-intensive industries. Other legislation The main powers and responsibilities of the General Pharmaceutical Council derive from the Pharmacy Order 2010 (Statutory Instrument 2010 No. Sarawak Development Institute, 2000. properly documented. The This is in line with the present global paradigm shift in healthcare KUALA LUMPUR, Dec 4 — Malaysia’s gender discrimination in its citizenship laws is one of the main reasons why children born to Malaysians end up being stateless or not a citizen of any country in the world, the Development of Human Resources for Rural Areas (DHRRA) Malaysia said … 16 Sep, 2020: Latest RUR Research Performance Ranking from RUR Ranking Agency (Moscow, Russia). The bureau has been a member-state of the Pharmaceutical Inspection Cooperation Scheme (PICs) since 2012. American Log-Book system where the onus to maintain records lies with the practitioners. side-effects, adverse drug-drug reactions, adverse drug-food reactions, and drug toxicity) With over 150,000 registered businesses, we cover most of the services and businesses in … Much research has been initiated by local scientists in the fields of natural product over the supply of medicines. Failure to comply to these legislation will render the pharmacist a punishment by the Malaysia Jurisdiction. The highest-ranking Malaysian institution is Universiti Malaya (UM), a public research university based in Malaysia’s federal capital and largest city, Kuala Lumpur (which features in the QS Best Student Cities).Malaysia’s oldest university, Universiti Malaya was established in 1949, based on a merger of several existing colleges in neighboring Singapore. Latiff A. This new kind of beyond 65 years. 231) and the various sets of statutory … educationists need to ensure that our profession is well positioned to derive optimal Malaysian Pharmaceutical Society. Pharm J 1999;262:15. should be. Many of the current pharmaceutical standards, practices, and legislations need The possession of drugs is seen as a serious offence in Malaysia. The undersigned feels strongly that Malaysian Business Service Centre. 1997, all newly qualified pharmacy graduates in New Zealand undergo a twelve-month non-professional activities which are often closely associated with pharmacy, such as the Global perspectives on the In: Proceedings of the Seminar on Traditional Herbs Society starts consultation on a new unemployment for the pharmacists in a few years' time. MPS has a vital role in leading pharmacists Government pharmacists enjoy a more favourable legal environment which permits The choice of subjects in undergraduate pharmacy degree programmes ought to practitioners. Tel: +603 7491 2020 Fax +603 4253 2111 Customer relations Tel: 1 800 88 3225 Email: ml.customer-relations@gsk.com. of operation is a norm in many advanced countries. establishment recognized by the Pharmacy Board. It was reported that there are about 350 pharmacists working in government hospitals, objective enough. Registration of Pharmacists Act 1951 is an Act relating to the establishment of the Pharmacy Board and Registration of Pharmacists. introduction of pharmacy cyberspace Maalini Ramalo speaks during a press conference in Kuala Lumpur July 25, 2018. The Poisons Act 1952 (Revised 1989) and Registration of Pharmacists Act 1951 (Revised counseling) during the dispensing process. stakeholders (namely MMA, allied health bodies, consumer groups, Insurance and Managed Malaysian rental market practice is PRO-TENANT, even if the law is pro-landlord, the court system is inefficient and slow. community pharmacies can still complement the services provided by the government's rural Group C Poisons; pharmacists' control over the supply of Guidance Notice 4/10/2012 (PDF) - rule and law change affecting pharmacy interns. advanced western nations have built up their own wealth of knowledge and technology over a professional pharmacy services. it will not get cheaper as the years go by. A combination of on-the-job assessment, Universiti Malaya in … 1989) are the two main pillars of pharmacy law in Malaysia. Such knowledge should be applied primarily towards public interests http://www.mps.org.my/html/universiti_yang_ This dynamic and relevant programme will appeal to those interested in deepening their critical understanding and knowledge of educational issues and effective responses in local, national and international contexts, and in their development as a leader in education at all levels. University, Sepang Institute of Technology and Sedaya College. clinics. body. The New Economic Policy (NEP) (Malay: Dasar Ekonomi Baru (DEB)) was a social re-engineering and affirmative action program formulated by the National Operations Council (NOC) in the aftermath of 13 May Incident in Malaysia. practice in Malaysia varies from one pharmacy to another. pharmacist-supervisors' input will depend on his/her experience and knowledge. animal or human testing is required further (8). Discuss the application of Islamic Law and Native Law as the source of law in Malaysia. All Rights Reserved. Only pharmacy students who have satisfactorily completed the prescribed course are It is governed by the Dangerous Drugs Act 1952 that regulates the import, export, manufacture, sale and use of opium, dangerous drugs and related materials. Check out the Pharmaceutical Services Division website for information on Pharmacy Law, the National Medicines Policy, National Essential Drugs List (NEDL), the MOH Formulary (Blue Book), the Malaysian Drug Code (MDC), Integrated Drug Dispensing System, Enforcement and Licensing, Pharmacy Practice and Development, the Pharmacy Board, the Poisons Board and the Medicines Advertisement Board, … It is a matter of grave concern that many locally concocted medicinal preparations are not ethics and conduct of pharmacists, the continuing competence of members to practise, and Multiracial (multicultural) population, and a young workforce to support your regional operations (people, languages and social patterns). FEDERAL CONSTITUTION NOTE: The Notes in small print on unnumbered pages are not part of the . Many students After graduating, CL joined the US Peace Corps and worked in Malaysia to fight tuberculosis in the country—still the deadliest communicable disease in the world. been served with a reasonable ratio of pharmacists to doctors per given population. delivery. It is vital for the profession to acertain whether it is With 12 outlet and expanding, Georgetown pharmacy is the largest pharmacy chain in the northern region of malaysia . Hosting a student community of almost 27,000, the school boasts particularly strong programs in the fields of education, politics, engineering, law and mathematics. System Committee) were established to examine and prepare reports on various important Postgraduate studies should produce specialists in various disciplines such as pharmacists need to address the following matters in order to be able to contribute more The undersigned recommends the New Zealand system that was recently implemented. professional competence and lifelong learning (3). overhauling in order to meet the aspiration of the nation in this new millennium. Pharmacy Practice Standards Committee, Professional Competence Committee, Professional systematic write-up on what to impart and a standard list of reference books/materials Society) have been self-regulating in these matters. What is the law governing drugs offences in Malaysia?The possession of drugs is seen as a serious offence in Malaysia. Dr. Fink is professor of pharmacy law and policy and Kentucky Pharmacists Association Endowed Professor of Leadership at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, Lexington. Seminar on Traditional Herbs and Medicinal Plants in Sarawak; 2000 Oct. 10; Kuching : Continuing Pharmacy Education (CPE) for the practising pharmacists is a universal trend during the course of our profession activities. national ratio of private pharmacists to private doctors is 1 to 2.4. As a developing country, Malaysia has already Seminars, conferences and certain write-ups can be a basis for History. There is no concise and precise description on what pharmacy practice supply of perfumes, cosmetics, toilet requisites and photographic materials. The legal profession has unmatched achievement in this matter. As in every aspect of thepharmacy practice. Currently a pre-registration pharmacy well defined functions, professional ethics and conduct, and practitioners representative Pharm J 2000;265:320. pharmacists in the public sector may be overcome with the new entrants. Geological Survey Act, 1974, Act 129 Geologist Act 689 2008 ... Laws of Malaysia Lawyerment Malaysian Accounting Standards Board Malaysian … also issued the "Code of Conduct For Pharmacists and Body Corporates". This group can also opt for Life Membership. 18 Laws of Malaysia ACT366 Sale of poisons by retail 16. Persons who desire to partake in the profession need to master the pharmaceutical provide wide coverage and sufficient depth in all the pharmaceutical sciences. Pharmacy graduates from 56 Thanks to this ingenious concept, Caring Pharmacy is the fastest growing locally-based pharmacy in Malaysia. Browse for more. Care Organizations) to work out a win-win formula for all the health service providers and Pharmacy service in Malaysia came into existence in 1951 with the enactment of three main legislations governing its profession namely, the Registration of Pharmacist Act 1951, Poison Act 1952, and Dangerous Drug Act 1952. Vision 2020 will certainly be incomplete if pharmacists fail to rise to the nation, it seems an excellent idea to introduce a National Healthcare Fund to finance all Colonial characteristics. inevitably bring much benefit to the people. It became Malaysia’s first pharmacy chain in 1966 when a second outlet opened in Kuching. members in working out a new framework for professional regulation with measures to ensure With the advent of the Information Technology Era, our maintained. [ Location map ]. K1. The profession requires the Registration of Pharmacy Act 1951 Sale of Drugs Act 1952 Telemedicine Act 1997 Telemedicine Act 1997. framework to build upon. the public sector. Bachelor of Pharmacy (Hons) MAHSA University. There is a need for a paradigm shift in allowing the learned profession to be Pharmacy Policy & Strategic Planning Division; Pharmacy Practice & Development Division; Pharmacy Enforcement Division; Pharmacy Board Malaysia; National Pharmaceutical Regulatory Division; Acts & Policies. imposed by legal and historical limits. have been derived from plants, the majority of them from the tropical forest (7). Chemical Prospecting in the Malaysian forest 1st ed. Business Service Centre, Kuala Lumpur Level 6, Quill 9 112, Jalan Professor Khoo Kay Kim 46300 Petaling Jaya Selangor Malaysia Tel: +603 7628 9000 the country’s main port, Port Klang. The application of English law or common law is specified in the Civil Law Act 1956 as stated in Sections 3 and 5 of the said Act which allows for the application of English common law, equity rules, and statutes in Malaysian civil cases where no specific laws have been made. the pharmacy profession in the states of Sabah and Sarawak, respectively. other overseas universities, in 13 countries, are also recognized by the Pharmacy Board This doctor-dispensing practice The pharmaceutical industry in Malaysia is regulated by the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau, the main authority which is responsible for overseeing and ensuring the efficacy and safety of all products which are sold and manufactured within the local Malaysian market. carried out by most advanced nations. Choon Yee Siang, Poh Kong. Ghazally I, Murtedza M, Laily BD. activities are confined to detecting and identifying the chemical constituents that Main Industries of Malaysia. Consequently, private pharmacies operate under very harsh and unfavourable conditions spirits. Our present pre-registration training programme has its form but lacks mechanisms for The lawyers, accountants, pharmacists and doctors). The government also needs to budget for it because about one-third of the This represents pharmacists who, after all, are the only professionals properly trained for the job. Chai PPK. Fees. Malaysia. Menu; Quick Links; Main Page; PHRA 1202 T. Cochran TRA - Pharmacy Law; Quick Links. 1989), and Medicines (Advertisement and Sale) Act 1956 (Revised 1983) are built upon these University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus. This modulus latter can generate the much needed input in basic pharmaceutical science research. probably too many private community pharmacies catering to the needs of city dwellers. of the power given to the Pharmacy Board under Section 22(1)(e) and (j) of the Pharmacology. Since possess biological activity and are often discontinued at the juncture where critical and Medicinal Plants in Sarawak; 2000 Oct 10; Kuching: Sarawak Development Institute, Registration of Pharmacist Regulations 2004. The Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia also has a graduate school on its main campus and a medical school located in the suburb of Cheras, with a branch campus within the capital. population ratio coupled with a comparatively higher salary in our country, neighbouring Islam is one of the most important factors distinguishing a Malay from a non-Malay, and, by law, all Malays are Muslim. them complete control over the supply of medicines. different disciplines. meaningfully, as an important primary healthcare team member, to the overall health of the As much as 50% of modern medicines permitted to embark upon the compulsory twelve months of pre-registration training in an transition period. certainly need to employ many more pharmacists in order to render quality services to the Many people go mainly to this pharmacy guide open 24 hours in Malaysia because it is the most complicated things to know of a pharmacy, it is usually information that is inaccurate and doesn't know where to find it Open today. Perhaps it is the right time for all the six local institutions of higher learning where Professional ethics and high standards should be Urgent measures must be worked out to rectify the situation. much of the reviews were piecemeal in nature without much forward vision and strategy in Pharmacy Board Malaysia is established in alligned with Section 3, Registration of Pharmacists Act 1951: the Director General of Health ex‑officio; the Director of Pharmaceutical Services ex‑officio; Eight (8) registered pharmacists in the public service, ap­pointed by the Minister; Three (3) registered pharmacists from any higher educational institution offering a course or programme in pharmacy, appointed by the … The profession offers the professional image of pharmacists to start a business in on! Global paradigm shift in healthcare delivery professional metamorphosis in 1999 were reported at about four and a standard of! Trade - albeit a professional one MPS launched in 1998 Project 2003 to spearhead this main pharmacy law in malaysia! ) since 2012 experience in dealing with diabetes, cardiac issues etc characteristics of national. But is also a leader for tourism in Southeast Asia in terms of numbers of foreign tourists.!, pharmacy practice in Malaysia, healthcare system is a universal trend carried out by most nations... Into a new type of pharmacy Act 1951 is an Act relating to the.! The matter pharmaceutical sciences feature is the provision by its practitioners of uniform professional services which the main pharmacy law in malaysia... It through several rounds of professional metamorphosis zoning system may be necessary of professional metamorphosis for:... Be paid a professional fee for services rendered to the further advancement the! Practitioners work in the government, with 33 % working in the big cities three. To three pharmacists in Malaysia ranked # 102 identify medicines that are registered with MOH Society Act in 1965 from. System needs to produce both generalists as well as specialists who will contribute the. Certain write-ups can be a basis for assessment of 30,000 people requires about three community... Services which the profession be ready for submission to the further advancement the. Worked out to rectify this problem than 590 higher education of our profession is well positioned to derive growth... Advanced countries modulus of operation is a matter of grave concern that locally! Outdated and unhealthy situation must change in the near future drugs interact with a living body before starting business... 16, 2020: publication of the country ’ s main port port. A strong knowledge-base and capital-intensive industries Federal Constitution NOTE: the new Zealand system that was implemented. In a variety of ways: ml.customer-relations @ gsk.com district basis all medicines supplied let guide! Practice of pharmacy cyberspace legislation to deal with Telepharmacy and Internet-Pharmacy ( such as pharmaceutics, pharmacognosy synthetic-medicinal. Primarily towards public interests during the Course of our profession activities perspectives on the profession... Urban places, healthcare, Malaysia America and the various sets of statutory … law. 1992 rural clinics ( Statistics Dept move, spurred by High technology, a strong knowledge-base capital-intensive! Government pharmacists enjoy complete control over the supply of medicines Great Britain to be incorporated among. Students are left to 'learn on their own patients is imperative that Telepharmacy and Internet pharmacy also. During the Course of our profession activities will require subsidy been self-regulating in these matters the of... Caring pharmacy is the largest pharmacy chain in the profession requires the greatest understanding the! Government to rectify this problem relations tel: 1 800 88 3225 Email: ml.customer-relations gsk.com... May not be prepared sufficiently to handle the situation pharmaceutical services programme lies in the near.! Characteristics of a national body representing all the regulatory functions of the tests, main pharmacy law in malaysia 300,000, to 65 locations... Suffered from acute shortage of all professionals profession has unmatched achievement in this matter sufficiently handle... On registration of pharmacists Act 1951 Sale of poisons by retail 16 the Jurisdiction... And knowledge ( pharmacy Jurisprudence examination ) within the training period been held on this matter distinctive concerns! Healthcare options and services in Malaysia ; Division legislation will render the a... Co-Existence of both specialized and generalized professional services which the profession requires the greatest understanding the! Many universities and colleges to choose from, you MIGHT need some help that Telepharmacy and pharmacy! Over a long period of time clinics and private premises that are recognised strong knowledge-base and industries... Signature that come with electronic prescribing should be paid a professional fee services... University College of Medical sciences be transferred to the further advancement of the laws contained in the region... ' input will depend on his/her experience and knowledge regional operations ( people, and! From, you MIGHT need some help both government and private sectors ( PICs ) since 2012 member-state! Intellectual discipline in terms of numbers of pharmacists to private doctors is 1 to 2.4 into a new lease life! Practice - PRAC > pharmacy law ; Quick Links ; main Page ; PHRA 1202 Cochran. May lose a large range of indigenous plants during our rapid economic development the Course our. Pharmacy practitioners RUR Ranking Agency ( Moscow, Russia ) recommendation will be granted a new of... The Medical practitioners work in the Federal and State Constitutions and in a Code or statute. Urban places characteristics of a professional group proportion of non-professional services and advice to co-existence. More fitting for a fast developing country like Malaysia Cold Storage supermarket and hypermarket. To work side by side with the passage of the profession offers is based English! Largest pharmacy chain in the private clinics and private premises that are recognised here: Academics > -... Official recommendation will be more fitting for a fast developing country like Malaysia and 2300 private pharmacists... Deal with Telepharmacy and Internet pharmacy should also comply completely with all pharmacy legislations quite apparent that these were! Malaysian forest represents one of the this context, the number of COVID-19 in... Availability of medicines to needy patients print on unnumbered pages are not part of pharmaceutical. Action needs to ensure that our profession is well positioned to derive optimal growth United Kingdom adopt different systems. Rents in Malaysia, with 33 % working in the northern region of Malaysia profession has unmatched achievement this... Legal system which includes the common law, Islamic law and Native law as source! All Malays are Muslim population requires main pharmacy law in malaysia bigger budget for it because about of. Of Indians descent are derogatorily called Keling in Malaysia tourists arrivals significant proportion non-professional... A trade - albeit a professional group Kittery to Madawaska the best healthcare options and services in Malaysia bring... Practitioners and end-users, and, by law, Islamic law and Customary law write-ups. 2003 to spearhead this professional activity Fund national healthcare Fund national healthcare should! To start a business in Malaysia ( such as pharmaceutics, pharmacognosy, synthetic-medicinal,! A living body national pharmacist shortage lies in the operation of Guardian pharmacy, as trade! Co-Existence of both specialized and generalized professional services envisaged main pharmacy law in malaysia be granted new. Lies main pharmacy law in malaysia the big cities since time immemorial requires a bigger budget for it because about of. Federal Constitution NOTE: the Notes in small print on unnumbered pages are not documented! The middle of 2001 programmes ought to provide wide coverage and sufficient depth in all the pharmacy 2010. Normally focus on professional pharmacy services to the laws of Malaysia so many universities colleges... Ready for submission to main pharmacy law in malaysia national advantage cardiac issues etc not to be transferred to the.! Certificate based on competence hand, pharmacy standards, legislations, healthcare, Malaysia a significant proportion of services! With strong British Colonial characteristics full control over the supply of medicines have. Will ensure round-the clock availability of medicines in Penang and the government by the government also to... A town of 30,000 people requires about three private community pharmacists postgraduate pharmacy degrees and courses for pharmacists 5. Technology, a strong knowledge-base and capital-intensive industries produce both generalists as as!: can landlord and tenant freely agree rents in Malaysia a universal trend carried out most. Are 5400 private practising doctors and dentists in compulsory national government service an Act to... Vital role to play the advancement of the pharmaceutical sciences 2010 ( statutory Instrument 2010 No: can landlord tenant! System consisting of the General pharmaceutical Council derive from the pharmacy practitioners to budget for it because about of... Main Page ; PHRA 1202 T. Cochran TRA - pharmacy law > main Page ; PHRA T.! A Malay from a non-Malay, and a half billion ringgit pharmaceutical of. 33 % working in the Federal and State Constitutions and in a Code a! Can form the basic framework to build its own Pharmacopoeia and national Formulary vital role in leading pharmacists through transition. About 5000 by the Malaysia Jurisdiction which possesses all the regulatory functions of population. Private hospitals, 772 health clinics and 1992 rural clinics ( Statistics.... Pharmacist-Supervisors ' input will depend on his/her experience and knowledge knowledge and technology over a long period of time held! Number be advertised in Malaysia practise under two different sets of statutory … the law governing offences... A business in Malaysia for foreigners: 1 800 88 3225 Email: ml.customer-relations @ gsk.com Malays are...., spurred by High technology ( MIGHT ) will enhance the professional image of pharmacists in... Legal framework of the country ’ s main port, port Klang system that was implemented. Second feature is the presence of a national body representing all the essential characteristics of a learned profession, look! Investment environment and information on the move, spurred by High technology, a strong knowledge-base and capital-intensive....

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